The prospect of another Civil War loomed large when Democrat Samuel Tilden and Republican Rutherford B. Hayes came up short of an electoral victory due to contested results in Florida, Louisiana, South Carolina, and Oregon. With a popular vote lead of more than 3%, Tilden needed only one of these states' 20 electors to win, while Hayes would need all 20. To settle the dispute, Congress established a 15-member commission of senators, congressmen, and Supreme Court justices. At first balanced in party affiliation, the commission became majority Republican after the lone independent resigned his position, naturally coming down on the side of Hayes. After Democrats threatened to filibuster the official vote, however, Republicans compromised by pledging to withdraw federal troops from the South — prematurely ending Reconstruction and prompting an era of disenfranchising black voters under Jim Crow.