FLUS RUSH IN
While mild temperatures can be a relief after a long, hot summer, fall's cool weather also ushers in a couple of unwelcome visitors: colds and the flu. Adults have an average of two to three colds per year, and anywhere from 5 to 20 percent of the U.S. population will catch the flu each year, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. To gear up for the season, here are 30 need-to-know tidbits about colds, flu, and flu shots, from who's most at risk, how to tell the difference between colds and the flu, and how effective that flu shot really is.
FLU IS A VIRUS
Influenza is caused by a virus — not bacteria — which means those antibiotics you ask your doctor for will be useless when it comes to treatment. The CDC warns against unnecessary antibiotics because it can help bacteria become more resistant to treatment when it is really needed.
COLDS ARE VIRUSES, TOO
As many as 200 different viruses could be causing your sniffles, but the most common culprit is rhinovirus. It accounts for up to half of colds and can survive for as long as two days outside of the body — especially on hard surfaces such as doorknobs and faucet handles.
THERE ARE MANY KINDS
The CDC classifies flu viruses as A, B, C, and D. Types A and B are seasonal flu, and influenza A is broken down into further subtypes and strains — for example, current subtypes include H1N1 and H3N2. Types B and C are typically not as severe as type A. (Type D, a relatively new discovery, affects pigs and cattle.)
FLU VIRUSES ARE ALWAYS CHANGING
Flu viruses undergo continual genetic changes that can accumulate over time, which is why the flu is a continual risk even after we develop antibodies to fight a certain kind. But flu viruses can also undergo sudden shifts that cause major pandemics, such as when H1N1 — otherwise known as "swine flu" — spread quickly in 2009.
WE CAN BLAME BIRDS
You can find just about every type of influenza A in birds. For that reason, scientists think most flu is "bird flu" at its root, Slate notes. The bird flu we hear about most often, also known as H5N1, typically is transmitted from bird to bird, but can infect people in rare cases after close contact with infected birds. Scientists have also suggested that cold viruses came from birds, too.
COLD AND FLU SEASON IS LONG
While it may seem like most flu comes in winter, flu season can actually stretch from October to May. While you can get the flu during the warmer months, you're much more likely to succumb to a virus with some flu-like symptoms instead of actual influenza, Verywell notes.
FLU CAN BE DEADLY ...
Between 12,000 and 56,000 people die from the flu each year, the CDC estimates. Officials give a range because several factors make precise numbers difficult, including the fact that flu may trigger another infection or aggravate an existing condition. In these cases, flu won't be listed as a cause of death despite its role.
... BUT NOT AS DEADLY AS IT USED TO BE
A flu pandemic in 1918 and 1919 killed 20 million to 50 million people worldwide and sickened more than a fourth of the U.S. population at the time. Thankfully, the likelihood of flu killing people on that kind of scale again is low because of advances in monitoring and drugs that can treat secondary infections, experts tell Mother Jones.
THE COMMON COLD HAS KILLED, TOO — KIND OF
For the most part, our bodies are able to fight off a cold effectively. But mutations of the common cold virus have proven occasionally deadly. For instance, in 2007, at least 10 people died after an adenovirus, one bug that causes colds, mutated into a more severe respiratory infection.
BABIES AND SENIORS ARE MOST AT RISK
COLDS ARE MORE COMMON AMONG KIDS
Kids are crammed into close quarters at school or daycare, and they’re also unlikely to wash their hands enough to prevent the spread of germs, WebMD advises. Combine all that with their still-tender immune systems, and you have the recipe for a long, sneezy winter.
FLU DOESN'T PLAY NICE WITH OTHER ILLNESSES
Certain conditions also put you at a higher risk of complications arising from the flu. Those include respiratory conditions such as asthma or emphysema; diabetes; stroke; heart disease; cancer; kidney problems; HIV or AIDS; and obesity.
COLDS CAN STILL LEAD TO NASTY COMPLICATIONS
Even if you “only” have a cold, that doesn’t mean it will stay completely harmless. Colds can trigger secondary, more serious infections such as pneumonia or strep, the Mayo Clinic warns. They can also trigger asthma attacks, ear infections, and sinusitis.
COLD OR FLU? DIAGNOSIS CAN BE TRICKY
People often mistake a common cold for the flu because some common-cold symptoms such as stuffy nose, sneezing, and sore throat can accompany the flu. Severe body aches, weakness, exhaustion, high fever, and intense chest discomfort are all signs you probably have the flu instead of a cold. Another clue? Colds usually start gradually,while flu can be quite abrupt, according to the CDC.
STOMACH FLU ISN'T REALLY THE FLU
It might make you feel better to call that stomach bug "stomach flu," but it's probably gastroenteritis, not influenza, according to the Mayo Clinic. The hallmarks of gastroenteritis are intestinal-based symptoms including vomiting and diarrhea, while the real flu centers on your respiratory system.
YOU CAN’T GET A COLD FROM THE COLD
No matter what grandma says, you won’t come down with a cold just because you went outside without your coat on. You catch a cold only from another person who has it, whether through direct contact or touching a germy surface, according to WebMD.
FLU SHOTS AREN'T 100 PERCENT EFFECTIVE ...
During the 2017-18 flu season, the flu vaccine was about 40 percent effective, the CDC estimates. Year to year, numbers can vary widely because officials have to guess which kinds of flu virus will circulate most widely, then formulate a vaccine to protect against three to four viruses. In 2014-15, flu shots were only about 19 percent effective because there was a mismatch between prevalent flu strains and what was in the vaccine.
... BUT YOU SHOULD STILL GET ONE
Though experts admit a flu shot doesn't offer 100 percent protection, the CDC still recommends one for everyone ages 6 months and older. The flu vaccine has saved 40,000 lives between 2005 and 2014, a CDC study estimates. And even if you do still get the flu, it will likely be much more mild than it would have been without a flu shot, researchers have found.
THERE’S STILL NO CURE FOR THAT COLD
Alas, your doctor won’t be offering you a “cold vaccine” anytime soon — though recent tests blocking a human protein that colds need to replicate have shown promise. For now, we’re still stuck following doctors’ timeworn advice: chiefly, to rest and stay hydrated to avoid prolonging our misery.
THERE MAY BE A 'BEST TIME' FOR FLU SHOTS
Though most officials say anytime is a good one for a flu shot, older people in particular may want to hold off when flu-shot signs start popping up in September. That's because the shot may not be quite as effective for quite as long when you're over 65. Experts tell NPR that a good window is between Halloween and Thanksgiving for optimal protection when flu season peaks, typically in late winter.
A FLU SHOT WON'T CAUSE FLU
The flu viruses in vaccines are inactive, which means they can't infect you, the CDC says. The most likely side effects are tenderness and minor swelling where the shot was given. It takes a week or so for the vaccine to protect you, so it's still possible to get sick after getting the shot.
EGG ALLERGIES AREN'T AN EXCUSE ...
Most flu vaccines are formulated with a small amount of egg proteins, but the CDC says the chance of a severe reaction in patients with egg allergies is very low. Those who experience hives only after eating eggs can get the vaccine anywhere it's offered, but people with more severe allergies should stick to an inpatient or outpatient medical setting such as a clinic or physician's office to be on the safe side. There's also an egg-free vaccine called Flublok.
... AND NEITHER IS PREGNANCY
Despite fears to the contrary, the flu shot is safe for women who are pregnant or breastfeeding. Women can get vaccinated during any trimester — even the first — and the antibodies their body will make after getting the flu shot can help protect babies for the first six months after birth, when they are too young for their own. (FluMist is not recommended for pregnant women, however.)
VACCINES DON'T REPLACE COMMON SENSE
Flu shots are no substitute for common-sense measures you can take to cut down on your risk of getting sick, including limiting contact with others who have the flu, frequent and prolonged handwashing, using alcohol-based hand sanitizers, refraining from touching your face, and getting plenty of sleep and exercise.
YOU'RE CONTAGIOUS FOR A WHILE
When you get the flu, you're first contagious for about a day before symptoms start, and about five to seven days after symptoms show, according to Healthline. The news is worse for colds: You can be contagious two days before having symptoms, and for two weeks after being exposed to the virus.
TAMIFLU IS NOT A SILVER BULLET
Prescription antiviral medications such as Tamiflu typically only shorten the duration of flu symptoms, and not by much, according to the Cleveland Clinic. Researchers have found the medicine to shave a day of symptoms off a weeklong illness. The drug is also costly and has its own potential side effects. Still, it might be worthwhile for patients at high risk for flu-related complications.
REST IS BEST
Once you have the flu, treatment is much the same as it is for other common viruses, assuming you forgo antivirals such as Tamiflu: plenty of rest and fluids. Over-the-counter pain relievers including Ibuprofen can help relieve body aches and fever temporarily. Using a cool-mist humidifier, breathing in steam, and using saline nose drops can help alleviate congestion.
GO EASY ON THE DISINFECTANT
Cold and flu germs don't last long outside the body, so scrubbing every countertop and doorknob to stay healthy might not be worth your while. While there's a chance some germs could last up to a day or two on hard surfaces, direct contact with an infected person is the much greater risk. That makes hand-washing much more important, according to the Mayo Clinic.
NATURAL REMEDIES DON'T DO MUCH
Though some people swear by natural products such as zinc, Vitamin C, Echinacea, or other vitamins and herbs during cold and flu season, experts say there's no concrete evidence that they help prevent colds or flu. Zinc may help cut down on the duration of colds, but it can also cause side effects or allergic reactions. Consult a doctor before using zinc or any other natural remedy.
YOU CAN TRACK THE SPREAD OF FLU
From October through May, the CDC monitors flu activity throughout the United States based on lab tests, physician visits, hospitalizations, and more. A flu activity map can give a snapshot of flu activity in your state, whether minimal or widespread.