23 Keys to Aging Well on a Shoestring Budget

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HEALTHY AND FRUGAL AGING

The U.S. population is aging as baby boomers swell the ranks of the senior cohort. By 2040, more than 1 in 5 Americans will be 65 or older. Getting older isn't easy for anyone, and the physical and financial costs can be substantial. But there are ways to age well that don't cost a lot of money.

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GET MOVING

Maintaining good physical health is a crucial part of aging well. A growing body of research indicates that one of the simplest forms of exercise, walking, is an excellent way to stay healthy. According to the American Heart Association, walking just 30 minutes a day produces a wide range of benefits, including reduced risk of heart disease, improved blood pressure, weight control, and a reduced risk of breast cancer, colon cancer, and diabetes. Walking is also one of the cheapest forms of exercise, requiring little more than a decent pair of shoes and a clear path.

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BUILD MUSCLE

Building and maintaining stamina through aerobic exercise is essential, but there are other ways to improve physical health. In particular, working with weights and other forms of resistance promotes better balance, stronger bones, weight control, and improved sleep. The benefits are so pronounced that the American College of Sports Medicine recommends the use of weights for all people over the age of 50. And while the advantages of weightlifting are substantial, the cost doesn't have to be. You can use household objects including cans of food or milk jugs filled with sand or gravel, and rubber resistance bands cost just a few dollars each. Check sites such as Craigslist for good deals on sets of hand weights and simple barbells. Many communities have gyms with inexpensive memberships; check for senior discounts.

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EAT WELL

Americans aren't famous for their healthy diets. The country that brought the world Coca-Cola, cheese-filled pizza crust, and supersize french fries still has a lot to learn about healthy eating and the benefits of homemade food. But making healthy food at home can cost less than buying unhealthy food. For example, a roast chicken is a healthier option than a hamburger combo meal. And oatmeal is cheaper and better for you than diner pancakes and sausage.

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GET SOME SLEEP

Researchers are learning more every day about the benefits of getting enough sleep. They include improved memory, reduced inflammation, weight control, less stress, better attentiveness, and -- best of all -- a longer lifespan. The advantages of sleep are so overwhelming that the only question is how to make sure you get enough. Getting to bed early always helps, and avoiding electronic screens before bedtime has been shown to encourage sleep. Naps during the day are another good option. Try a 20-minute power nap in the afternoon to improve your focus.

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STAY SHARP

Physical health is important, but the mind needs exercise too. Researchers have found that mental stimulation benefits the brain in the same way physical stimulation benefits the body. Simple mental workouts such as puzzles, cards, and board games have been shown to help maintain cognitive function in older people. A study in the New England Journal of Medicine found that older people who challenge their brains regularly with puzzles are less likely to develop dementia. Physical activity also helps maintain normal brain function. There are many options for inexpensive or free puzzles and games. Local libraries are good sources, and many "brain games" are available online.

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EXPLORE NEW FIELDS

Puzzles are a fun way to keep your mind sharp, but some people are looking for more serious intellectual stimulation. A good way to give your mind a regular workout is to learn something new. Love Paris? Take up French. Interested in the Civil War? Bone up on 19th-century American history. Like computers? Learn how to code. Developing knowledge in new fields helps keep you connected to the larger world, and wrestling with new ideas is a good way to exercise your brain. There are many ways to explore new fields for little or no money. The library and Web are obvious starting points. For more formal pursuits, many colleges and universities reduce or eliminate tuition for older students.

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STAY CONNECTED

While it's wise to focus on your own mental and physical well-being as you age, it's important to maintain connections with other people. For many people, family comes first, and spending time with family is an important and healthy part of life. It's also important to keep up with old friends and, when you lose touch, make new ones. A fun way to stay connected is to enjoy healthy activities together. Go for a walk, make a nice (inexpensive) dinner for a group, take (reduced tuition) classes together. Like mental and physical exercise, spending time with friends and family keeps paying dividends over time.

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VOLUNTEER

Giving back to the community is a good way to stay engaged while helping others. Most communities have volunteer organizations that are looking for help. Food banks and soup kitchens always need a helping hand, and local schools are usually looking for tutors. The list of national organizations that need volunteers is long and includes Habitat for Humanity, Easter Seals, and the American Red Cross. Online services such as Volunteer Match make it easy to connect with groups eager for help.

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WRITE IT DOWN

Everyone has an interesting story to tell. Why not put yours down on paper for future generations? Think how satisfying it would be to read your great-grandmother's life story, written in her own words. Consider giving that gift to your descendants, or at least to some future historian. You can use a free blogging platform, or a 99-cent notebook, to collect your thoughts.

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TEND THE SPIRIT

Aging makes us aware of the fragility and impermanence of life. This can be a difficult realization for many people, and it makes sense to deal with the emotional turmoil it can bring. Religious groups are good sources of support, but even more secular-minded people have plenty of options to explore. The important thing is to address the spiritual aspects of aging, in whatever way makes sense to you. And although it can be a challenging process, the fiscal toll is negligible.

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DITCH THE CLUTTER

For most of us, the accumulation of years means also accumulating objects. While some might be treasures, too much of it is junk that can make people really stuck. Professional organizers say that when a house is full of the past, there is no room for the future. It can be hired expensive to hire pros to clear out a home; the principles are simple and can be done independently.
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PLAY MORE MUSIC

In addition to being enjoyable, music can provide a brain-stimulating workout, according to Johns Hopkins Medicine. The research indicates that listening to music reduces stress and blood pressure as well as boosts mental alertness. Listen to some newer music to provide a mental challenge, and learn how to play an instrument for the ultimate attention, memory, and problem-solving challenge.
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DEVELOP A POSITIVE ATTITUDE

It's hard to ignore societal ageism, but the way people perceive aging becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy. Instead, accept physical and mental changes as a part of a natural progression of life. Researchers say people who see aging as a positive experience tend to recover faster and be in better shape physically as well as mentally.
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MEDITATE

One way to help develop a positive attitude is to meditate. Meditation has been shown in some studies to slow the aging process on a cellular level and improving the outlook on life. It enhances mindfulness, lowers stress, and sharpens mental acuity. Meditation might not be easy, because it requires a great deal of focus, but it costs nothing to start.
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GO OUTSIDE

Vitamin D helps maintain a healthy immune system, and doctors often prescribe the vitamin as a boost to healthy bone structure. The National Institute of Health says that getting a mere 12 to 15 minutes a day of midday sun helps -- it's free, easy, and a step to getting some exercise as well. (Wear sunscreen, though, to help protect skin and prevent skin cancer.)
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DON'T BE A SLAVE TO FASHION

One of the great advantages of retirement is the savings in wardrobe and dry cleaning. Getting to an age of confidence when personality shines more than style, it's possible to wear what's comfortable, rather than what's popular. Besides, a refusal to follow fashion trends is a fashion statement in itself.
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HAVE AN ADVENTURE

With no kids at home, and no jobs to tie them down, older folks are free to explore the world. And travel, one of the top expectations of retirement, is considered to improve overall outlook on life, reduce stress, and provide mental stimulation. It isn't necessary to travel too far, but seniors are entitled to many benefits that can save money on the road, including discounts on trains, car rentals, cruises, hotels, and camping.
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STRETCHING

Any oldster who wakes up a bit on the creaky side could benefit from a bit of stretching. Practicing yoga, because of its combination of stretching and breathing, has been shown to lower blood pressure, strengthen bones and protect joints, improve balance and strengthen mental function. Studies have shown that practicing yoga relaxation for just 30 minutes has immediate beneficial effects on brain function and performance. It doesn't require a gym membership, either. While cheap yoga classes are available, the frugal can practice at home with help from YouTube.
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VISIT A MUSEUM

In the interest of expanding the mind, there is nothing like going to a museum and experiencing art or history or the natural world. In fact, some museums, such as MoMA present art programs to specifically engage elderly dementia patients. While gazing at a painting will not forestall dementia, it keeps people mentally alert and focused. As a bonus, virtually every museum in the country offers a discount to seniors.
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TURN OFF THE TV

It's possible to explore new worlds through a TV screen, but too much can be hazardous to your health. All sedentary behaviors are deleterious, but TV watching (especially when coupled with mindless eating) is considered particularly bad in large doses. Studies have shown that people who watch three or more hours a day are more likely to die prematurely than people who watch an hour or less. Just another reason to get outside, spend time with people, and move around more.
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EAT YOUR VEGETABLES

A healthy diet is the keystone to a longer and healthier life. A primarily plant-based diet helps reduce cancer and heart disease and doesn't have to be expensive, especially with vegetables grown at home. Becoming a vegetable gardener promotes many of the good behaviors associated with aging well: It gets people engaged and focused, outside, and fed in a healthy way. A balcony or deck will work fine, as many veggies can be grown in containers. Or join a community garden which is a good way to find a new social circle.
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GET ONLINE

Most people 65 and older spend no time online, and many are loath to try. They often feel that they lack the necessary skills, or that it will be too challenging to learn. But particularly for people who are isolated or have mobility issues, getting online offers real benefits in increased connection with a social support group, and this can ward off depression.
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MAINTAIN A LITTLE BIT OF STRESS

We are constantly told to avoid stress to keep blood pressure down and heart disease at bay. But a little bit of stress, it turns out, is actually a good thing. Studies show that while a lot of adversity can be harmful to health, so can none at all. Small stressors, such as moving or leaving a job, makes us better able to adapt to the general difficulties of life, gives us confidence in our ability to manage, and less likely to fear change. Since growing older involves many changes, having some stress in life can make us better able to cope with them.